In 2011, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launched the “Reinvent The Toilet Challenge”. The Challenge consisted of developing inexpensive systems to safely treat human excreta onsite without external source of water, electricity, and sewers . The Hoffmann Research Group at Caltech designed the first Reinvented Toilet based on an electrochemical disinfection to treat and recycle toilet waste . Ten years later, as the technology is being commercialized in India, South Africa, and China, the problem of energy consumption and maintenance requirements are becoming critical. We are addressing the first challenge by improving the electrochemical oxidation process through electro-peroxone and reactive electrochemical membranes. To address the second challenge, we have developed a self-diagnosis and malfunctions detection system based on analog and digital wired sensors in the unit . The combination of effective electrochemical treatment and complete monitoring will enable the Caltech Reinvented Toilets to be a true competitor to traditional sanitation systems such as sewers and septic tanks.
 Kone, D. 2012. Meeting Abstracts. The Electrochemical Society. pp. 79-79.
 Cid, C.A., Qu, Y., Hoffmann, M.R. 2018. Env. Sci.-Water Res. & Techn., 4(10), 1439-1450.
 Cid, C.A., Hoffmann, M. R. 2020 IEEE GHTC